The League of Nations: Legal, Political and Social Impact on Estonia

  • David Ramiro Troitiño TalTech Law School, Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)
  • Tanel Kerkmäae TalTech Law School, Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)
  • Ondrej Hamulák Faculty of Law, Palacký University Olomouc (Czech Republic)
Keywords: League of Nations, Estonia, Legal International Organizations, World Peace


The League of Nations, predecessor of the current United Nations, was the first world organization with a real impact on its members. The organization was created after the WWI in an attempt to establish a stable peace system among its members. Estonia, a country formed after the end of the war, was in a need of international recognition and protection. Hence, the membership was welcome as an anchor to liberty and freedom. This research analyses how the organization influenced Estonia and what were the major contributions of the country in the development of the League of Nations. The aim of the paper is to analyse the concrete impact of the membership on the position and recognition of Estonia as well as the influence of Estonia on the development of key activities of the League of Nations, in particular the questions of refugee protection and return of prisoners of war; protection of minorities (including the support to protection of rights of native American tribes) and attempts to establish the uniform global legal order. A special focus is given also to personal impact represented by the authority of Ragnar Nurkse.


ANT, J. (ed.). (1998). Kaks algust: Eesti Vabariik, 1920. ja 1990. aastad (Vol. 3). Eesti Riigiarhiiv, 1998.
AUFRICHT, H. (1951). Guide to League of Nations publications: a bibliographical survey of the work of the League, 1920-1947. New York: Columbia University Press, 1951, 682 p.
CECIL, R. (1972). The myth of the master race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi ideology. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1972, 266 p.
DUBIN, M. D. (1983). Transgovernmental processes in the League of Nations. In: International Organization. Vol. 37, No. 3, 1983, pp. 469-493.
ELLIS, C. H. (1929). The origin, structure & working of the League of Nations. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company (reprinted by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.), 1929, 528 p.
HOUSDEN, M. (2014). The League of Nations and the Organization of Peace. London: Routledge, 2014, 192 p.
HOWARD-ELLIS, C. (1928). The origin, structure and working of the League of Nations. London: Allen & Unwin, 1928, pp. 451-477.
JACKSON, J. H. (1969). World Trade and the Law of GATT (Vol. 482). Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. 1969.
KERIKMÄE, T. (2004). The Achilles Heel of Estonia’s Ownership Reform: The Case of Emigrants. In: European Journal of Law Reform. Vol. 6, No. 1/2, 2004, pp. 265-279.
KERIKMÄE, T. (2009) Estonia in the European Legal System: Protection of the Rule of Law Through Constitutional Dialogue, Tallinn University, 2009, 59 p.
KERIKMÄE, T. (2015). European History and the Future of Legal Freedoms. In: Baltic Journal of European Studies. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2015, pp. 3-4.
KERIKMÄE, T., GRÄZIN, I. (2000). Euroopa Liit ja õigus.Tallinn: Õiguskirjastus, 2000, 192 p.
KERIKMÄE, T., JOAMETS, K., PLEPS, J., RODIN, A., BERKMANAS, T. (2014). The Law of the Baltic States. Cham: Springer International, 2014, 534 p.
KUEHL, W. F., DUNN, L. (1997). Keeping the covenant: American internationalists and the League of Nations, 1920-1939 (No. 10). Kent (Ohio): Kent State University Press, 1997, 408 p.
KUKK, K., KUKK, K. (2009). The Life and Time of Ragnar Nurkse. In: KATTEL, R., KREGEL, J. A., REINERT, E. S. (eds). Ragnar Nurkse (1907-2007): Classical Development Economics and its Relevance for Today. London: Anthem Press, 2009, pp. 29-52.
LAQUA, D. (2011). Transnational intellectual cooperation, the League of Nations, and the problem of order. In: Journal of Global History. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2011, pp. 223-247.
LEAGUE OF NATIONS. (1936a). Ratification of International Conventions Concluded Under the Auspices of the League of Nations: Results of the Sixth Enquiry Addressed by the Secretary-general to the Governments Under the Assembly’s Resolution of October 3rd, 1930.
LEAGUE OF NATIONS. (1936b). Uniform System of Maritime Buoyage.
LEAGUE OF NATIONS. (1938). Report on exchange control, no. 10.
LEAGUE OF NATIONS ASSEMBLY. (1937). Report of the Australian delegation.
LEAGUE OF NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMITTEE. (1931). The Agricultural Crisis (Vol. 1). Geneva: League of Nations, 1931.
LOTH, W. (2015). Building Europe: A History of European Unification. Oldenbourg: De Gruyter, 2015, 485 p.
MADE, V. (2002). In search of abstract security: Estonia and the League of Nations. In: MEDIJAINEN, E., MADE, V. (eds.). Estonian Foreign Policy at the Cross-Roads. Helsinki: Kikimora Publications, 2002, pp. 25-39.
MARGARET C. PEABODY FUND (1929). A short history of the League of nations: official textbook for the third national competitive examination on the League of nations for high school students and the first national competitive examination on the League of nations for normal school students.
MEDIJAINEN, E., MADE, V. (eds.) (2002). Estonian Foreign Policy at the Cross-Roads. Helsinki: Kikimora Publications, 2002, 170 p.
MILJAN, T. (2015). Historical dictionary of Estonia. Rowman & Littlefield, 2015.
NORTHEDGE, F. S. (1986). The League of Nations: its life and times. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1986.
ROSTING, H. (1923). Protection of Minorities by the League of Nations. In: American Journal of International Law, Vol.17, No. 4, 1923, pp. 641-660.
TAMMAN, T. (2011). The last ambassador: August Torma, soldier, diplomat, spy. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2011, 270 p.
TROITIÑO, D. R. (2008). Estonia y la Unión Europea. RUE. Revista universitaria europea, Vol. 9, 2008, pp. 31-46
TROITIÑO, D. R. (2013). European Integration: Building Europe (European Political, Economic, and Security Issues). London: Nova Science Publishers, 2013, 352 p.
TROITIÑO, D. R. (2014). The British position towards European integration: a different economic and political approach. In: Baltic Journal of European Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2014, pp. 119-136.
TROITIÑO, D. R. (2017). Jean Monnet before the first European Community: a historical perspective and critic. In: Trames: A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2017, pp. 193-213.
TROITIÑO, D. R., BALLESTEROS, M. D. L. P. P. (2017). El modelo de integración europea de Churchill. In: Revista de Occidente, No. 433, 2017, pp. 57-71.
VEATCH, R. (1975). Canadian foreign policy and the League of Nations, 1919-1939. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1975, 236 p.
WALTERS, F. P. (1952). A History of the League of Nations (Vol. 2, p. 716). London: Oxford University Press, 1952.
WEISS-WENDT, A. (2017). On the Margins. About the History of Jews in Estonia. Budapest: Central European University Press, 2017, 330 p.
How to Cite
Troitiño, D., Kerkmäae, T., & Hamulák, O. (2019, October 15). The League of Nations: Legal, Political and Social Impact on Estonia. Slovak Journal of Political Sciences, 19(2). Retrieved from