Attracting Skilled Migration to the Czech Republic – Lagging Behind?

  • Hana N. Hlaváčková Department of International Relations and European Studies, Metropolitan University Prague, Czech Republic
  • Lucie Macková Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic
Keywords: Skilled migration, Migration policy, Czech Republic, Effectiveness, Efficacy, Policy gaps, Implementation

Abstract

This paper attempts to explore the issue of skilled migration and the approach of the Czech Republic when it comes to attracting and retaining foreign skilled workers. The global competition for talent has been a prominent issue in migration studies, mainly because it has been shown that qualified migration can have a positive impact both on the countries of origin and of destination. The Czech Republic, with its low levels of unemployment, might benefit from the human capital offered by the skilled migration, and yet, there is surprisingly little debate about the type of migration the Czech Republic wants to attract. At best, this debate is driven by short-term employer demands. Surprisingly, there is little research about skilled migration to the Czech Republic and other CEE states despite its clear benefits. This paper will explore the Czech policies and programmes dealing with skilled migration and the possible caveats of these programmes. The main aim of this contribution, done by qualitative and quantitative content analysis, is to analyze past and ongoing programmes of migration and integration policy of the Czech Republic regarding skilled migration. Furthermore, it attempts to shed light on the discursive, implementation, and efficacy gaps in the Czech policies.

References

ADAMS, R., PAGE, J. (2005). Do international migration and remittances reduce poverty in developing countries? In: World Development, Vol. 33, No. 10, 2005, pp. 1645–1669.
ADAMS, R. (2006). Remittances and poverty in Ghana. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3418, 2006.
BAMF (2018). Figures on the EU Blue Card. Berlin: BAMF - Federal Office for Migration and Refugees, [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
BARŠOVÁ, A., BARŠA, P. (2005): Přistěhovalectví a liberální stát: imigrační a integrační politiky v USA, západní Evropě a Česku. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2005.
BAUEROVÁ, H. (2018). The Czech Republic and the Reality of Migrant Integration Policy in the Context of European Integration. In: Hrvatska i komparativna javna uprava: časopis za teoriju i praksu javne uprave, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2018, pp. 397–420.
BHAGWATI, J. N. (1976). Taxing the brain drain. In: Challenge, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1976, pp. 34–38.
BRETTEL, B. C., HOLLIFIELD, F. J. (2015). Migration theory. Talking Across Disciplines. London: Routledge, 2015.
BROCHMANN, G., HAMMAR, T. (eds.) (1999). Mechanisms of Immigration Control. Oxford: Berg, 1999.
BURKERT, C., NIEBUHR, A., WAPLER, R. (2008). Regional disparities in employment of high-skilled foreigners: Determinants and options for migration policy in Germany. Leibniz - Information Centre for Economics - Hamburg Institute of International Economics. Leibniz, 2008.
CORNELIUS, W. A., MARTIN, P. L., HOLLIFIELD, J. F. (1994). Controlling immigration: A global perspective. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.
COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. (2009). Council Directive 2009/50/EC of 25 May 2009 on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of highly qualified employment (OJ L 155, 18.6.2009, 17–29). Brussels: Council of the European Union, 2009. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
CZAIKA, M., DE HAAS, H. (2011). The effectiveness of immigration policies: A conceptual review of empirical evidence. Oxford: International Migration Institute, 2011.
CZAIKA, M., DE HAAS, H. (2013). The Effectiveness of Immigration Policies. In: Population and Development Review, Vol. 39, No. 3, 2013, pp. 487–508.
CZ-ISCO (2019). Klasifikace zaměstnání ISCO. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
DOCQUIER, F. RAPOPORT, H. (2011). Globalisation, brain drain and development. IZA Discussion Paper No. 5590, 2011.
DRBOHLAV, D. (2010). Migrace a (i)migranti v Česku. Kdo jsme, odkud přicházíme, kam jdeme? Praha: SLON, 2010.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION. (2019). Eurobarometr – jaro 2019: Evropané nejoptimističtější za pět let, důvěra roste i v Česku, 5. 8. 2019. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 23 April 2020].
FAIRCLOUGH, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis. London: Longman, 1995.
GIBSON, J., MCKENZIE, D. (2012). The economic consequences of brain drain of the best and brightest: Microeconomic evidence from five countries. In: Economic Journal. Vol. 122, No. 560, 2012, pp. 339–375.
GOVERNMENT OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC. (2017). Czech Republic 2030 - Strategic framework, 19. 4. 2017. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
GOVERNMENT OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC. (2019) . Results of the Government Meeting on August 26, 2019, 26. 8. 2019. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
GROSSMANN, V., STADELMANN, D. (2013). Wage effects of high-skilled migration: international evidence. In: The World Bank Economic Review. Vol. 27, No. 2, 2013, pp. 297-319.
HOLLIFIELD, J. F. (2000). Migration and the New International Order: The missing regime. In: Bimal, Ghosh. Managing Migration: The Need for a New International Regime. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
IHNED.CZ (2018). Firmy dusí nedostatek lidí, příští rok jich bude chybět půl milionu. Ekonomika kvůli tomu výrazně zpomalí, varuje Hospodářská komora. Ihned.cz, 15. 10. 2018. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
IOM (2017). World Migration Report 2018. UN, New York, 2017. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
KING, R., OKÓLSKI, M. (2019). Diverse, Fragile and Fragmented: The New Map of European Migration. In: Central and Eastern European Migration Review. Vol. 8, No. 1, 2019, pp. 9-32.
KOSER, K., SALT, J. (1997). The geography of highly skilled international migration. In: International Journal of Population Geography. Vol. 3, No. 4, 1997, pp. 285-303.
KOSTELECKÁ, Y., BERNARD, J. KOSTELECKÝ, T. (2007). Zahraniční migrace vědců a výzkumníků a nástroje k jejímu ovlivnění. Sociologický ústav AV ČR, 2007.
KOUTNÁ, M., KRČKOVÁ, A., VAVŘINOVÁ, T. (2016). Educational Mismatch Among Immigrants in the Czech Republic-Selected Issues. In: Sociologia, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2016, pp. 572-600.
KUBELKOVÁ, K. (2019). Prognóza vývoje počtu volných pracovních míst. Firmám chybí téměř půl milionu lidí. In: Businessinfo.cz. 5. 2. 2019. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
KUSCHMINDER, K., STURGE, G., RAGAB, N. (2014). The contributions and barriers to knowledge transfer experienced by returning experts. CIM Working Paper Series No. 7, November 2014.
KUŠNIRÁKOVÁ, T., ČIŽINSKÝ, P. (2011). Dvacet let české migrační politiky: Liberální, restriktivní, anebo ještě jiná. In: Geografie, Vol. 116, No. 4, 2011, pp. 497-517.
KUVIK, A. (2012). Skilled migration in Europe and beyond: recent developments and theoretical considerations. In: Martinello, M., Rath, J. (eds.): An introduction to international migration studies. European perspectives. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2012, pp. 211-235.
LEONTIYEVA, Y. POKORNÁ, A. (2014). Faktory bránící využití kvalifikace imigrantů na trhu práce v ČR. Multikulturní centrum Praha, 2014.
LUCAS, R. EB (2005). International migration and economic development: Lessons from low-income countries. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005.
MPO (2019a). Vláda schválila nové programy ekonomické migrace. Praha: MPO, 27. 8. 2019. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
MPO (2019b). Čeští zaměstnavatelé budou snadněji zaměstnávat kvalifikované cizince. Praha: MPO, 3. 6. 2019. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
MPSV (2010). Projekt “Výběr kvalifikovaných zahraničních pracovníků” končí. Praha, MPSV, 13. 12. 2010. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
MPSV (2018). Employee card - information for employers. Praha: MPSV, 20. 11. 2018. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
MPSV (2019). Oznámení cizince s modrou kartou o ukončení pracovního poměru, změně pracovního zařazení nebo změně zaměstnavatele. Praha: MPSV, 2019. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
MPSV (2020). Applicants from the EU / EEA registered in the Czech Republic – structure. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 23 April 2020].
MVČR (2015). Strategy on Migration Policy of the Czech Republic. Praha, MVČR, 29. 7. 2015. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
MVČR (2015). Tiskové zprávy. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
MVČR (2016). Tiskové zprávy. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
MVČR (2017). Tiskové zprávy. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
MVČR (2018). Tiskové zprávy. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
MVČR (2019). Tiskové zprávy. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
NAXERA, V. (2019). Islamophobia without Muslims: Anti-Muslim and anti-Arab Attitudes in Czech Society (Introductory Remarks),” In: Gardocki, S., Ożarowski, R., Ulatowski, R. (eds.). The Islamic World in International Relations. Berlin: Peter Lang, 2019, pp. 251–267.
NOWICKA, M. (2012). Deskilling in migration in transnational perspective: The case of recent Polish migration to the UK. COMCAD Working Paper No. 112, 2012.
SAXENIAN, A. (2002). Silicon Valley’s new immigrant high-growth entrepreneurs. In: Economic development quarterly. Vol. 16, No. 1, 2002, pp. 20-31.
SAXENIAN, A. (2006). The new Argonauts. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006.
SOLIMANO, A. (2008). The international mobility of talent and economic development: an overview of selected issues. In: Solimano, A. (ed.): The International Mobility of Talent: Types Causes and Development Impact. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 21-43.
SPČR (2019). Evropský byznys k nedostatku pracovníků s potřebnými dovednostmi. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 10 September 2019].
STURGE, G., BILGILI, O., SIEGEL, M. (2016). Migrants’ capacity as actors of development: do skills matter for economic and social remittances? In: Global Networks. Vol. 16, No. 4, 2016, pp. 470-489.
VALENTA, O., DRBOHLAV, D. (2018). Longitudinal and spatial perspectives on the mismatch of tertiary educated migrant workers in the Czech labour market: The case of Ukrainians. In: Moravian Geographical Reports. Vol. 26, No. 4, 2018, pp. 255-272.
VALENTA, O. (2013). Policy of attracting highly skilled professionals from the third countries to Czechia. In: Ergo. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2013, pp. 18-25.
Published
2020-04-15
How to Cite
N. Hlaváčková, H., & Macková, L. (2020, April 15). Attracting Skilled Migration to the Czech Republic – Lagging Behind?. Slovak Journal of Political Sciences, 20(1). Retrieved from http://sjps.fsvucm.sk/index.php/sjps/article/view/132