The Impact of the D21 Method and Its Modification on Citizens’ Participation in Participatory Budgeting. The Case of the Czech Republic

Keywords: Participatory budgeting, Voting method, Voter turnout, Arrows impossibility Theorem, D21 Method


Participatory budgeting (PB) is often discussed as a tool to support active participation of citizens in the decision-making in the matters of the distribution of public resources. However, little was said about the possibility that the choice of a voting method used in the voting phase of the PB process could affect the participation in PB. In the Czech Republic, the Democracy 2.1 (D21) voting method is often used in municipalities implementing PB and additionally, it is promoted as a method to encourage more people to vote. This article aims to determine Czech municipalities with the D21 method and its modification, and to evaluate the impact of choosing these voting methods on participation rate in PB. The study suggests that the choice of a voting method is relevant for citizens´ engagement in voting. Based on the empirical findings, the D21 method and its modification are associated with a higher voter turnout in PB than another voting method. Further, the results underline the influence of external organizations offering online platforms for voting.


AGORA, CE. (2015). Výroční zpráva 2015. [online]. Available at: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
ARIELY, D. (2010). Predictably irrational: The hidden forces that shape our decisions. New York: Harper Perennial, 384 pp.
ARROW, K. (1951). Social choice and individual values. New York: Wiley, 99 pp.
ARROW, K. (1977). Current Developments in the Theory of Social Choice. In: Social Research. [online]. Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 607-622. Available at: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
ARROW, K. and MASKIN, E. (2012). Social Choice and Individual Values. New York: Yale University Press, 192 pp.
BARDOVIČ, J. and GAŠPARÍK, J. (2021). Enablers of Participatory Budgeting in Slovakia During the COVID-19 Pandemic. In: Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice, Series D: Faculty of Economics and Administration. Vol. 29, No. 1, Article no. 1248. DOI:
BECHTEL, M. M., HANGARTNER, D. and SCHMID, L. (2018). Compulsory Voting, Habit Formation, and Political Participation. In: The Review of Economics and Statistics. [online] Vol. 100, No. 3, pp. 467–476. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
BHAGAT, S. and BRICKLEY, J. A. (1984). Cumulative Voting: The Value of Minority Shareholder Voting Rights. In: The Journal of Law and Economics. [online] Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 339–365. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
BHATNAGAR, D., RATHORE, A., TORRES, M. and KANUNGO, P. (2003). Participatory budgeting in Brazil. In: World Bank Working Paper. [online] No. 51418, Empowerment Case Studies. Available at: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
BRAMS, S. and FISHBURN, P. (2007). Approval voting. New York: Springer Verlag, 200 pp.
BRAMS, S. and SANVER, M. (2009). Voting Systems that Combine Approval and Preference. In: Brams, S., Gehrlein, W. and Roberts, F. (ed.), The Mathematics of Preference, Choice, and Order. Studies in Choice and Welfare. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 215–237. DOI:
BRAMS, S. J. and FISHBURN, P. C. (1978). Approval Voting. In: American Political Science Review. Vol. 72, No. 3, pp. 831–847. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
CALABRESE, T., WILLIAMS, D. and GUPTA, A. (2020). Does Participatory Budgeting Alter Public Spending? Evidence from New York City. In: Administration & Society. [online] Vol. 52, No. 9, pp. 1382-1409. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
CARROL, C., CRUM, T., GAETE, C., HADDEN, M. and WEBER, R. (2016). Democratizing Tax Increment Financing Funds Through Participatory Budgeting. [online]. Available at: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
ČERNÝ, V. (2016). Metodika tvorby participativního rozpočtu pro města v ČR. [online]. Praha: Agora CE, 47 pp. Available at: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
CONGLETON, R. (2001). Rational Ignorance, Rational Voter Expectations, and Public Policy: A Discrete Informational Foundation for Fiscal Illusion. In: Public Choice. [online] Vol. 107, pp. 35–64. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
CZECH PIRATE PARTY. (2020). Participativní rozpočet. [online]. Available at: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
ĎURDÍKOVÁ, M. (2018). Participatory budgeting - theory and praxis. Diploma thesis. Masaryk University in Brno. Faculty of Economics and Administration.
DŽINIĆ, J., SVIDROŇOVÁ, M. and MARKOWSKA-BZDUCHA, E. (2016). Participatory Budgeting: A Comparative Study of Croatia, Poland, and Slovakia. In: NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy. [online]. Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 31–56. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT. (2016). Participatory budgeting. An innovative approach. [online]. Briefing, January 2016. Available at: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
FÖLSCHER, A. (2007). Participatory Budgeting in Central and Eastern Europe. In: Shah, A. ed. Participatory Budgeting. Public Sector Governance and Accountability Series. Washington, D.C: World Bank, pp. 127–156.
GOODIN, R. and LIST, C. (2006). A Conditional Defense of Plurality Rule: Generalizing May’s Theorem in a Restricted Informational Environment. In: American Journal of Political Science. [online]. Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 940–949. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
GREEN-ARMYTAGE, J., TIDEMAN, T. and COSMAN, R. (2016). Statistical evaluation of voting rules. In: Social Choice and Welfare. [online]. Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 183–212. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
GROFMAN, B. and FELD, S. (2004). If you like the alternative vote (a.k.a. the instant runoff), then you ought to know about the Coombs rule. In: Electoral Studies. [online]. Vol. 23, No.4, pp. 641–659. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
HAMAN, M. and ŠKOLNÍK, M. (2020). Socioeconomic or Political Variables? The Determinants of Voter Turnout in Czech Municipalities. In: Slovak Sociological Review. Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 222-244. DOI:
HROMÁDKOVÁ, A. (2021). Participativní rozpočty a hlasovací systém Demokracie 21. Diploma thesis. Mendel University in Brno. Faculty of Business and Administration.
JANEČEK, K. (2016). Democracy 2.1. 29 August 2016 [online]. Available at: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
JIRÁSKOVÁ, M. (2018). Využití hlasovacího systému Demokracie 21. Diploma thesis. Mendel University in Brno. Faculty of Business and Administration.
KAHNEMAN, D. and TVERSKY, A. (ed.) (2000). Choices, values, and frames. New York: Cambridge University Press, 860 pp. DOI:
KUKUČKOVÁ, S. A POLÁCHOVÁ, M. (2021) The Impact of Different Voting Methods on Citizens' Participation in Participatory Budgeting. The case of the Czech Republic. In: Presentation on the Conference Economic Competitiveness and Sustainability. Brno: Mendel University in Brno, March 25th March, 2021.
KUKUČKOVÁ, S. and BAKOŠ, E. (2019). Does Participatory Budgeting Bolster Voter Turnout in Elections? The Case of the Czech Republic. In: NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy. [online]. Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 109–129. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
LASLIER, J. (2012). And the loser is... Plurality Voting. In: Felsenthal, D. and Machover, M. ed., Electoral Systems. Paradoxes, Assumptions, and Procedures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp 327-351. DOI:
LASLIER, J. and SANVER, M. (2010). Handbook on approval voting. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 480. DOI:
LERNER, J. and SECONDO, D. (2012). By the People, For the People: Participatory Budgeting from the Bottom Up in North America. In: Journal of Deliberative Democracy. [online]. Vol. 8, No. 2. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
MBIH, B., MOYOUWOU, I. and ZHAO, X. (2010). On the positive association of parliamentary social choice functions. In: Social Choice and Welfare. [online]. Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 107–127. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
MCLEAN, I. and MCMILLAN, A. (ed.). (2009). The concise Oxford dictionary of politics (3rd edn.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 640 pp. DOI:
MEIER, A., SCHMID, L. and STUTZER, A. (2019). Rain, emotions and voting for the status quo. In: European Economic Review. [online]. Vol. 119, pp. 434–451. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
MILLER, S., HILDRETH, R. and STEWART, L. (2019). The Modes of Participation: A Revised Frame for Identifying and Analyzing Participatory Budgeting Practices. In: Administration & Society. [online]. Vol. 51, No. 8, pp. 1254–1281. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
MINÁRIK, P. (2020). Participatory Budgeting and Traditional Participation in Czech Municipalities. In: Slovak Journal of Political Sciences. Vol. 20, No. 1. pp. 29-47. DOI:
OCHRANA, F. (2003). Veřejná volba a řízení veřejných výdajů. Praha: Ekopress, 64 pp.
OFFICINA. (2021). Participatory Budgeting World Atlas. [online]. Available at:
OLEJNICZAK, J. and BEDNARSKA-OLEJNICZAK, D. (2018). Participatory Budgeting in Poland in 2013 – 2018: Six Years of Experiences and Directions of Changes. In: Dias, N. ed.. Hope for Democracy: 30 Years of Participatory Budgeting. [online]. Epopeia Records. pp. 337 – 354. Available at: [Accessed: 2021-07-27].
PAPE, M. and LERNER, J. (2016). Budgeting for Equity: How Can Participatory Budgeting Advance Equity in the United States? In: Journal of Deliberative Democracy. [online]. Vol. 12, No. 2, Article 9. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
POUNDSTONE, W (2008) Gaming the Vote: Why Elections Aren't Fair (and What We Can Do About It). New York City: Hill and Wang, 352 pp.
REGENWETTER, M. (ed.). (2006). Behavioral social choice: Probabilistic models, statistical inference, and applications. New York: Cambridge University Press. 258 pp.
REGENWETTER, M., GROFMAN, B., POPOVA, A., MESSNER, W., DAVIS-STOBER, C. and CAVAGNARO, D. (2009). Behavioural social choice: A status report. In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Vol. 364, No. 1518, pp. 833–843. DOI:
SEDMIHRADSKÁ, L., KUKUČKOVÁ, S. and BAKOŠ, E. (2022, In Press). Project-Oriented Participatory Budgeting in the Czech Republic. In: De Vries, M. S., Nemec, J. and Špaček, D. eds.: International Trends in Participatory Budgeting: Between Trivial Pursuits and Best Practices. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 131-147. DOI:
SHAH, A. (ed.). (2007). Participatory budgeting. Public Sector Governance and Accountability. [online]. Washington, DC: World Bank. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
SINTOMER, Y., HERZBERG, C. and RÖCKE, A. (2008). Participatory Budgeting in Europe: Potentials and Challenges: Participatory budgeting in Europe. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. [online]. Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 164–178. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
TABARROK, A. (2015). Arrow´s Impossibility Theorem. [online]. Presentation at Department of Economics, George Mason University. March 4, 2015. Available at: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
THALER, R. and SUNSTEIN, C. (2009). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. London: Penguin Books, 320 pp.
WAMPLER, B. (2012). Participatory Budgeting: Core Principles and Key Impacts. In: Journal of Public Deliberation. [online]. Vol. 8, No. 2, Article no. 12. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
WODAK, D. (2019). The Expressive Case against Plurality Rule. In: Journal of Political Philosophy. [online]. Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 363–387. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
YOUNG, H. (1988). Condorcet’s Theory of Voting. In: American Political Science Review. [online]. Vol. 82, No. 4, pp. 1231–1244. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
ZEPIC, R., DAPP, M. and KRCMAR, H. (2017). E-Partizipation und keiner macht mit: Das Geheimnis geringer Beteiligungsquoten deutscher Bürgerhaushalte. In: HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik [online]. Vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 488–501. DOI: [Accessed: 2021-08-27].
How to Cite
Kukučková, S., & Poláchová, M. (2021, December 31). The Impact of the D21 Method and Its Modification on Citizens’ Participation in Participatory Budgeting. The Case of the Czech Republic. Slovak Journal of Political Sciences, 21(2), 117-138. Retrieved from