Predictors, Determinant Groups, and Participatory Budgeting

Keywords: Participatory budgeting, Determinants, Local government, Slovenia, Participation


Recent developments in local public finance management in Slovenia indicate the local governments’ growing interest in introducing participatory budgeting as a decision-making tool, wherein part of local resources are used with citizen participation. Usually, the literature on participation budgeting analyses its effects, but our main research objective was to analyze the possible determinants influencing its implementation. The influence of political factors, sociodemographic factors, economic factors, and the capability of municipalities are examined here using binary logistic regression to predict a dichotomous dependent variable from a set of predictor variables. In binary logistic regression, predictable variables are the probability of one category being chosen. In this case, the authors calculated the probability that a municipality, described by selected prediction variables, would implement a participatory budget. The results of the analysis suggest six indicators that impact the probability of participatory budgeting adoption, proving the influence of four determinants on the decision to adopt such a measure.


ALLEGRETTI, G. and HERZBERG, C. (2004). Participatory budgets in Europe. Between efficiency and growing local ‘democracy’. In: Transnational Institute and the Centre for democratic policy-making, TNI briefing series. No. 2004/5.
ANDERSEN, H. T. and VAN KEMPEN, R. (2003). New trends in urban policies in Europe: Evidence from the Netherlands and Denmark. In: Cities. Vol. 20, pp. 77-86. DOI: 10.1016/S0264-2751(02)00116-6.
ARVANITIDIS, P. A. (2017). The concept and determinants of civic engagement. In: Human Affairs. Vol. 27, No. 3, 2017, pp. 252-272. DOI:
BARDOVIČ, J. and GAŠPARÍK, J. (2021). Enablers of Participatory Budgeting in Slovakia During the COVID-19 Pandemic. In: Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice, Series D: Faculty of Economics and Administration, Vol. 29, No. 1, Art. No. 1248. DOI:
BIRSKYTE, L. (2013). Involving citizens in public decision making: the case of participatory budgeting in Lithuania. In: Public Sector Economics. Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 383-402. DOI:
BLOOMFIELD, D., COLLINS, K., FRY, C. and MUNTON, R. (2001). Deliberation and inclusion: Vehicles for increasing trust in UK public governance? In: Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy. Vol. 19, pp. 501-513. DOI:
BUČEK, J. and SMITH, B. (2000). New approaches to local democracy: Direct democracy, participation and the “third sector”. In: Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy. Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 3-17. DOI:
CARLITZ, R. (2013). Improving Transparency and Accountability in the Budget Process: An Assessment of Recent ‘Initiatives. In: Development Policy Review. Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 49–67.  DOI:
CHO, C.H., JÉRÔME, T. and MAURICE, J. (2021). “Whatever it takes”: first budgetary responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in France. In: Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management. Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 12-23. DOI: https://Doi.Org/10.1108/Jpbafm-07-2020-0126.
COOPER, T. L., BRYER, T. A. and MEEK, J. W. (2006). Citizen-centered collaborative public management. In: Public Administration Review, Vol. 66, pp. 76-88. DOI:
COUNCIL OF EUROPE, CENTRE OF EXPERTISE. (2018). 12 principles of good democratic governance. [online]. Available at: [Accessed April 3, 2020].
DE RENZIO, P. and WEHNER, J. (2017). The Impacts of Fiscal Openness. In: The World Bank Research Observer. Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 185-210. DOI:
DŽINIĆ, J., MURRAY SVIDROŇOVÁ, M. and MARKOWSKA-BZDUCHA, E. (2016). Participatory Budgeting: A Comparative Study of Croatia, Poland and Slovakia. In: NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy. Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 31-56. DOI:
EBDON, C. (2000). The Relationship Between Citizen Involvement in the Budget Process and City Structure and Culture. In: Public Productivity and Management Review. Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 383–393. DOI:
FUNG, A. (2006). Varieties of participation in complex governance. In: Public Administration Review. Vol. 66, pp. 66-75. DOI:
GOETZ, A. M. and GAVENTA, J. (2001). Bringing Citizen Voice and Client Focus into Service Delivery. Working Paper 138. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies, 65 pp.
HALACHMI, A. and HOLZER, M. (2010). Citizen Participation and Performance Measurement: Operationalizing Democracy through Better Accountability. In: Public Administration Quarterly. Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 378–399. DOI:
HARRISON, T. M. and SAYOGO, D. S. (2014). Transparency, Participation, and Accountability Practices in Open Government: A Comparative Study. In: Government Information Quarterly. Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 513–525. DOI:
HAYRAPETYAN, R. (2019). Quantitative Analysis of Factors Affecting Citizen Participation in Local Governance: The Case of Yerevan. In: Public Administration Issue. No. 6. (Special Issue II, electronic edition), pp. 61–76. DOI:
KLIMOVSKÝ, D. and MURRAY SVIDROŇOVÁ, M. (2021). Political determinants of sustainable participatory budgeting in Slovakia. Presented at IR SPM Conference 2021 - Public Management, Governance and Policy in Extraordinary Times: Challenges and Opportunities, 20-23 April 2021.
KLUN, M. and BENČINA, J. (2022). Experiences of participatory budgeting in Slovenian municipalities. In: De Vries, M., Nemec, J. and Spacek, D. International Trends in Participatory Budgeting. Springer, forthcoming.
KUKUČKOVA, S. and BAKOŠ, E. (2019). Does Participatory Budgeting Bolster Voter Turnout in Elections? The Case of the Czech Republic. In: NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 109-129. DOI:
LEHTONEN, P. (2021). Policy on the move: the enabling settings of participation in participatory budgeting. In: Policy Studies, March, 2021. DOI:
LIAO, Y. and ZHANG, Y. (2012). Citizen Participation in Local Budgeting: Mechanisms, Political Support, and City Manager’s Moderating Role. In: International Review of Public Administration. Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 19– 38. DOI:
MANES-ROSSI, F., BRUSCA, I., LEVY ORELLI, R., LORSON, P. C. and HAUSTEIN, E. (2021). Features and Drivers of Citizen Participation: Insights from participatory budgeting in three European cities. In: Public Management Review. August 2021, DOI:
MBITHI, A., NDAMBUKI, D. and JUMA, F. (2019).Determinants of Public Participation in Kenya County Governments. In: Journal of Asian and African Studies. Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 52–69. DOI:
MEMETI, M. and KRECI, V. (2016). Role of the Municipal Council in Increasing Citizen Participation at the Local Budget Process. In: Central European Public Administration Review. Vol. 14, No. 2-3, pp. 53-73. DOI_
MILLER, S. A., HILDRETH, R.W. and STEWART, L. M. (2019). The Modes of Participation: A Revised Frame for Identifying and Analyzing Participatory Budgeting Practices. In: Administration & Society. Vol. 51, No. 8, pp. 1254–1281. DOI:
MOYNIHAN, D. P. (2007). Citizen Participation in Budgeting: Prospects for Developing Countries. In: Shah, A. et al. Participatory Budgeting. Washington: World Bank, pp. 55–87.
NITZSCHE, P., PISTOIA, A. and ELSÄßER, M. (2012). Development of an Evaluation Tool for Participative E-Government Services: A Case Study of Electronic Participatory Budgeting Projects in Germany. In: Administratie si Management Public. Vol. 2012, No. 18, pp. 6–25.
ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT. (2001). Citizens as partners. Information, consultation and public participation in policy-making. OECD: Paris.
RADU, B. (2019). The Impact of Transparency on the Citizen Participation in Decision- Making at the Municipal Level in Romania. In: Central European Public Administration Review. Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 111-130. DOI:
RAICH, U. (2005). Fiscal Determinants of Empowerment. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3705. Washington: World Bank.
RIOS, A. M., BENITO, B. and BASTIDA, F. (2016). Research and Evaluation Factors Explaining Public Participation in the Central Government Budget Process. In: Australian Journal of Public Administration. Vol. 76, No. 1, pp. 48–64. DOI:
RUSSON, G. H. (2016). Participatory Budgeting and Civic Tech : The Revival of Citizen Engagement. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
SAEBO, O., ROSE, J. and FLAK, L. S. (2008). The shape of eParticipation: Characterizing an emerging research area. In: Government Information Quarterly. Vol. 25, pp. 400-428. DOI:
SHAH, A. (ed) (2007). Participatory budgeting. Washington: The World bank.
SINTOMER, Y., HERZBERG, C., RÖCKE, A. and ALLEGRETTI, G. (2012). Transnational Models of Citizen Participation: The Case of Participatory Budgeting. In: Journal of Public Deliberation. Vol. 8, No. 2. DOI:
SINTOMER, Y., RÖCKE, A. and HERZBERG, C. (2016). Participatory Budgeting in Europe: Democracy and public governance (1st ed.). Routledge. DOI:
ŠVALJEK, S., RAŠIĆ BAKARIĆ, I. and SUMPOR, M. (2019). Citizens and the city: the case for participatory budgeting in the City of Zagreb. In: Public Sector Economics, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 21-48. DOI:
TANAKA, S. (2007). Engaging the Public in National Budgeting: A Non-Governmental Perspective. In: OECD Journal on Budgeting. Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 139–177. DOI:
THOMAS, J. C. and STREIB, G. (2005). E-Democracy, E-Commerce, and E-Research: Examining the electronic ties between citizens and governments. In: Administration & Society. Vol. 37, pp. 59-280. DOI:
WAMPLER, B. (2000). A Guide to Participatory Budgeting. Available at: [accessed April 3, 2021].
WAMPLER, B. (2007). A guide to participatory budgeting,. In: Shah, A. et al. Participatory Budgeting. Washington: World Bank, pp. 21–54. Available at: curated/ en/ 708251468338965560/ Participatory-budgeting [Accessed 30 April 2021].
WANG, X. (2001). Assessing public participation in US ‘cities’. In: Public Performance & Management Review. Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 322–336. DOI:
WARREN, A. M., SULAIMAN, A. and JAAFAR, N. I. (2014). Social media effects on fostering online civic engagement and building citizen trust and trust in institutions. In: Government Information Quarterly. Vol. 31, pp. 291-301. DOI:
WELLMAN, B., BOASE, J. and CHEN, W. (2002). The networked nature of community: Online and offline. In: IT & Society. Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 151-165.
YANG, K. F. and CALLAHAN, K. (2007). Citizen involvement efforts and bureaucratic responsiveness: Participatory values, stakeholder pressures, and administrative practicality. In: Public Administration Review. Vol. 67, pp. 249-264.  DOI:
YETANO, A. (2015). Keeping Citizens Engaged. In: Administration & Society, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 1-29. DOI: 10.1177/0095399715581625
ZHANG, Y. and LIAO, Y. (2011). Participatory Budgeting in Local Government: Evidence from New Jersey Municipalities. In: Public Performance and Management Review. Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 281–301. DOI:
ZHANG, Y. and YANG, K. (2009). Citizen Participation in the Budget Process: The Effect of City Managers. In: Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting and Financial Management. Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 289–317. DOI:
How to Cite
Klun, M., & Benčina, J. (2021, December 31). Predictors, Determinant Groups, and Participatory Budgeting. Slovak Journal of Political Sciences, 21(2), 186-208. Retrieved from